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Thursday, March 27, 2008

Essential Oils Affect Mood and Cognitive Performance

The following study notes a significant difference in response to different aromas - here, peppermint and ylang ylang aromas were tested, and the participant's level of awareness and calmness. Peppermint significantly heightened alertness and response time, where ylang ylang brought about calmness and slowed response time. And our big question: why don't studies like this get any press, where the recent one performed in the US showing no change in some saliva chemical markers was all over the media? With the headline that aromatherapy doesn't work? It's one thing to say different aromas do not affect saliva chemical composition...but this is the only reasonable conclusion the study could really come to. Delving into the research reveals all sorts of studies with results similar to the following:

Study: Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang.

Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, Wesnes K.Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

This study provides further evidence for the impact of the aromas of plant essential oils on aspects of cognition and mood in healthy participants. One hundred and forty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to conditions of ylang-ylang aroma, peppermint aroma, or no aroma control. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery, with mood scales completed before and after cognitive testing. The analysis of the data revealed significant differences between conditions on a number of the factors underpinning the tests that constitute the battery. Peppermint was found to enhance memory whereas ylang-ylang impaired it, and lengthened processing speed. In terms of subjective mood peppermint increased alertness and ylang-ylang decreased it, but significantly increased calmness.

These results provide support for the contention that the aromas of essential oils can produce significant and idiosyncratic effects on both subjective and objective assessments of aspects of human behavior. They are discussed with reference to possible pharmacological and psychological modes of influence.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Monday, March 17, 2008

Peppermit Essential Oil for Irritable Bowel Syndrom

A couple of studies demonstrating the efficacy of enterically-coated peppermint essential oil capsules for treatment of irritable bowel syndrom. No, we don't offer these capsules, but the knowledge may be of use to some folks, AND it is interesting to consider that peppermint essential oil can help manage a challenging illness. IT ALSO APPEARS, from the study using both Caraway and Peppermint oils, that the enteric coating is not necessary for the effect - it just goes down easier for many folks.

Study: Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial.

Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, Huang CK, Poon SK.
Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

To determine the efficacy and tolerability of an enteric-coated peppermint-oil formulation (Colpermin), we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 110 outpatients (66 men/44 women; 18-70 years of age) with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients took one capsule (Colpermin or placebo) three to four times daily, 15-30 min before meals, for 1 month. Fifty-two patients on Colpermin and 49 on placebo completed the study. Forty-one patients on Colpermin (79%) experienced an alleviation of the severity of abdominal pain (29 were pain-free); 43 (83%) had less abdominal distension, 43 (83%) had reduced stool frequency, 38 (73%) had fewer borborygmi, and 41 (79%) less flatulence. Corresponding figures for the placebo group were: 21 patients (43%) with reduced pain (4 were pain-free), 14 (29%) with reduced distension, 16 (32%) with reduced stool frequency, 15 (31%) with fewer borborygmi, and 11 (22%) with less flatulence. Symptom improvements after Colpermin were significantly better than after placebo (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). One patient on Colpermin experienced heartburn (because of chewing the capsules) and one developed a mild transient skin rash. There were no significant changes in liver function test results. Thus, in this trial, Colpermin was effective and well tolerated.

Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, Manzoli L, Marzio L.Section of Digestive Sciences, Department of Medicine, G d'Annunzio University, Chieti-Pescara, Italy.

INTRODUCTION: The use of peppermint oil in treating the irritable bowel syndrome has been studied with variable results probably due to the presence of patients affected by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance or celiac disease that may have symptoms similar to irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of enteric-coated peppermint oil in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance and celiac disease were excluded. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome according to the Rome II criteria, with normal lactose and lactulose breath tests and negative antibody screening for celiac disease, were treated with peppermint oil (two enteric-coated capsules twice per day or placebo) for 4 weeks in a double blind study. The symptoms were assessed before therapy (T(0)), after the first 4 weeks of therapy (T(4)) and 4 weeks after the end of therapy (T(8)). The symptoms evaluated were: abdominal bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhoea, constipation, feeling of incomplete evacuation, pain at defecation, passage of gas or mucus and urgency at defecation. For each symptom intensity and frequency from 0 to 4 were scored. The total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was also calculated as the mean value of the sum of the average of the intensity and frequency scores of each symptom. RESULTS: At T(4), 75% of the patients in the peppermint oil group showed a >50% reduction of basal (T(0)) total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score compared with 38% in the placebo group (P<0.009). With peppermint oil at T(4) and at T(8) compared with T(0) a statistically significant reduction of the total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was found (T(0): 2.19+/-0.13, T(4): 1.07+/-0.10*, T(8): 1.60+/-0.10*, *P<0.01 compared with T(0), mean+/-S.E.M.), while no change was found with the placebo. CONCLUSION: A 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil (peppermint essential oil) improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Study: Peppermint oil-caraway oil fixed combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia--comparison of the effects of enteric preparations.

Freise J, Köhler S.Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Mühlheim/Ruhr, Germany.

223 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (dysmotility type dyspepsia or essential/idiopathic dyspepsia, also in combination with irritable bowel syndrome) were included in a prospective, randomised, reference- and double-blind controlled multicentre trial to compare two different preparations of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil (essential oils). The aim of the trial was to evaluate the equivalence of the efficacy and tolerability of these two preparations. The test formulation consisted of the drug combination in an enteric coated capsule containing 90 mg peppermint oil and 50 mg caraway oil, while an enteric soluble formulation containing 36 mg peppermint oil and 20 mg caraway oil was used as the reference. The main target item defined was the "difference in pain intensity between the beginning and the end of therapy", measured by the patient on a visual analogue scale (0 = no pain, 10 = extremely strong pain). In 213 patients (n = 108 on the test preparation, n = 105 on the reference preparation) with mean pain intensity baseline measurements of 6.1 points in the test preparation group and 5.9 points in the reference group a statistically significant decline in pain intensity was observed in the two groups (-3.6 resP. -3.3 points; p < 0.001; two-sided one-sample t-test). Equivalent efficacy of both preparations was demonstrated (p < 0.001; one-sided t-test for equivalence). With respect to concomitant variables, the results in both groups were also similar. Regarding "pain frequency", the efficacy of the test preparation was significantly better (p = 0.04; two-sided t-test for difference). Both preparations were well tolerated. Despite the higher dose, the adverse event "eructation with peppermint taste" was less frequent in the group treated with the test formulation, due to the enteric coated capsule preparation.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.


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