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Saturday, May 31, 2008

Evening Primrose Oil and Skin Care

Evening primrose oil has been the subject of many studies in relation to skin health. Here are two studies which demonstrate its efficacy in both general skin care and in treatment of eczema. We highly recommend using Evening Primrose oil in your skin care blends, along with other anti-inflammate and healing carrier oils like Tamanu nut, Rosehip Seed, Apricot Kernel and Wheatgerm. Essential oils that are especially important for skin care include Sea Buckthorn, Helichrysum, Lavender, Rosemary Verbenone, and Blue Tansy. Creating your own blends is simple to do - just select oils that apply to your skin's condition, and mix them in a 1-5% total concentration in the carrier oils of your choice. Fun and easy to do! Here's the studies on Evening Primrose - note that the first involves the ingesting of Evening Primrose - you may also consider Hemp oil for an even better source of essential fatty acids. Also, for eczema, we carry an essential oil blend called 'Soothing Skin Extra' which is based on the medical aromatherapy liturature...

Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults.

Muggli R., AdviServ Consulting, Rotbergstrasse 11, CH-4114 Hofstetten, Switzerland.

Biophysical skin parameters are indicators of age-related structural and functional changes in skin tissues. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy adults tested the effect of Efamol evening primrose oil [EPO, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) containing vegetable oil] on skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, firmness, elasticity, fatigue resistance and roughness. Efamol EPO was administered orally in soft gel capsules, 3 x 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. The two treatment groups did not differ at baseline and at week 4. At week 12, however, all measured variables, with the exception of skin redness, were significantly different in the EPO group compared with placebo. Skin moisture, TEWL, elasticity, firmness, fatigue resistance and roughness had significantly improved by 12.9, 7.7, 4.7, 16.7, 14.2 and 21.7%, respectively. The two-sided levels of significance in favor of the EPO treatment ranged between 0.034 and 0.001. These findings lend further support to the notion that GLA is a conditionally essential fatty acid for the skin, i.e. it is unable to synthesize GLA, and therefore depends on preformed GLA for optimal structure and function.

A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Efamol evening primrose oil in atopic eczema. Where do we go from here in light of more recent discoveries?

Morse NL, Clough PM. Wassen International Ltd., 14 The Mole Business Park, Leatherhead, Surrey, KT22 7BA.

The global incidence of atopic eczema is escalating. While new treatment options are becoming available, previous treatments with certain confirmed benefits are still worth investigating as safe and effective therapies. One such treatment, Efamol (Brand) evening primrose oil (EPO), was proven efficacious in a 1989 meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. A decade of further testing and subsequent independent reanalysis of 26 clinical studies including 1207 patients presented here, establishes that Efamol EPO has a simultaneous, beneficial effect on itch/pruritis, crusting, oedema and redness (erythema) that becomes apparent between 4 and 8 weeks after treatment is initiated. However, the magnitude of this effect is reduced in association with increasing frequency of potent steroid use. This and other confounding variables that are now being reported in the literature may account for historically reported inconsistent patient response. Recent research has uncovered unique complexities in fatty acid metabolism and immune response in the atopic condition beyond those previously reported and may well have identified a subcategory of non-responders and has helped established those that can consistently derive significant benefit. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding of the physiology behind this complex disorder and the beneficial role that fatty acids can play in its development and management. CONCLUSION: Efamol EPO has a simultaneous, beneficial effect on itch/pruritis, crusting, oedema and redness (erythema) that becomes apparent between 4 and 8 weeks after treatment is initiated. However, the magnitude of this effect is reduced in association with increasing frequency of potent steroid use.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Friday, May 23, 2008

Studies Reveal Tea Tree Treats Acne Effectively

Tea tree essential oil is a very commonly-used antimicrobial. These studies indicate a 5% concentration to be effective in treating acne. You can make your own blend my mixing 40 drops of tea tree essential oil in either Aloe Vera or Hazelnut oil - while the Hazelnut option sound a little odd - adding oil to oily skin, it actually works well, as Hazelnut oil is astringent. It is called for in blends in the aromatherapy liturature, and will not exacerbate the problem. Myrtle is condsidered a little nicer smelling essential oil, and is also effective for acne treatment. Here's a review of the laboratory studies:

Study: The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F.Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

BACKGROUND: Finding an effective treatment for acne that is well tolerated by the patients is a challenge. One study has suggested the efficacy of tea tree oil in treatment of the acne vulgaris. AIM: To determine the efficacy of tea tree oil in mild to moderate acne vulgaris. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial performed in 60 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. They were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with tea tree oil gel (n=30) or placebo (n=30). They were followed every 15 days for a period of 45 days. Response to treatment was evaluated by the total acne lesions counting (TLC) and acne severity index (ASI). The data was analyzed statistically using t-test and by SPSS program. RESULTS: There were no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics between the two groups. There was a significant difference between tea tree oil gel and placebo in the improvement of the TLC and also regarding improvement of the ASI. In terms of TLC and ASI, tea tree oil gel was 3.55 times and 5.75 times more effective than placebo respectively. Side-effects with both groups were relatively similar and tolerable. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% tea tree oil is an effective treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

Study: A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.

Bassett IB, Pannowitz DL, Barnetson RS.Department of Dermatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW.

Tea-tree oil (an essential oil of the Australian native tree Melaleuca alternifolia) has long been regarded as a useful topical antiseptic agent in Australia and has been shown to have a variety of antimicrobial activities; however, only anecdotal evidence exists for its efficacy in the treatment of various skin conditions. We have performed a single-blind, randomised clinical trial on 124 patients to evaluate the efficacy and skin tolerance of 5% tea-tree oil gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne when compared with 5% benzoyl peroxide lotion. The results of this study showed that both 5% tea-tree oil and 5% benzoyl peroxide had a significant effect in ameliorating the patients' acne by reducing the number of inflamed and non-inflamed lesions (open and closed comedones), although the onset of action in the case of tea-tree oil was slower. Encouragingly, fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated with tea-tree oil.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Wednesday, May 21, 2008

Myrrh Essential Oil Studied for After Sun Exposure

A study just released notes that Myrrh essential oil is effective for post-sun exposure protection of the skin. UV rays start a free-radical cascade that results in damage to skin cells, and applying Myrrh oil (we'd recommend 3% in a carrier) after sun exposure will halt the peroxidation. Our owner personally uses a formula after sun exposure of equal parts Apricot Kernel, Tamanu and Rosehip Seed with essential oils of Helichrysum, Blue Tansy and Sea Buckthorn (at 3% each - though she might just try adding Myrrh to it now!), plus a little Vitamin E and Ascorbyl Palmitate (oil-soluble vitamin C, available from www.beyondacenturyonline.com)

Virtually all essential oils have some anti-oxidant activity; the oils chosen for the after sun formula were included for their anti-inflammate (Helichrysum and Blue Tansy) and anti-oxidant (Sea Buckthorn) effects. Apricot is anti-inflammate as well; and both Tamanu and Rosehip seed are very healing. Easy to mix up yourself!

Protection against singlet oxygen, the main actor of sebum squalene peroxidation during sun exposure, using Commiphora myrrha essential oil.

Auffray B. Application and Development Laboratory, Robertet, 37, Avenue Sidi Brahim-B.P. 52100-06131 Grasse Cedex, France.

Squalene is a component of sebum. Both are directly exposed to the external environment and play a key role in skin physiology. They are particularly prone to photo oxidation during sun exposure. We studied the impact of two types of antioxidant on sebum squalene peroxidation by UV irradiation. The first type is free radical scavenger (Butyl hydroxyl toluene and an olive extract rich in hydroxytyrosol). The second type is the essential oil of Commipora myrrha (Myrrh essential oil), a singlet oxygen quencher. These properties were confirmed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test for antiradical capacity [Yoshida et al. (1989) Chem. Pharm. Bull., 37, 1919; Buenger et al. (2006) Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 28, 135] and 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran test for the capacity to quench singlet oxygen [Kochewar and Redmond (2000) Meth. Enzymol., 28, 319; Racine and Auffray (2005) Fitoterapia, 76, 316]. Furthermore, we have extended an ex vivo method to classify the efficacy of cosmetics to protect squalene by collecting sebum in vivo and irradiating it in a controlled way. The squalene monohydroperoxide formation is monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. This methods allows us to compare the efficiency of the three antioxidants at 0.6% in a cosmetic formulation to protect squalene from photo oxidation. Our results clearly show that essential oil of Commiphora myrrha provides the best protection against squalene peroxidation. These results demonstrate that squalene peroxidation during solar exposure is mainly because of singlet oxygen and not due to free radical attack. This suggests that sun care cosmetics should make use not only of free radical scavengers but also of singlet oxygen quenchers.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

Studies Demonstrate the Antispasmodic Effect of Ginger Essential Oil

A small bottle of ginger essential oil is a common addition to the traveler's first aid kit, primarily for support of the digestive system. One of the owners of Ananda Aromatherapy recently had profound relief of stomach cramps using a 10% dilution of Ginger and Chamomile essential oils in Jojoba, rubbed into his abdomen.

Here are two studies reporting the anti-spasmodic effects of Ginger. They are somewhat technical; the results indicate that Ginger essential oil has scientific support for its effect on the smooth muscles of the digestive system. Essential oils are readily absorbed through the skin, hence the quick effect via topical application. While Ginger is a little potent for the youngest ones of the family, Roman Chamomile is suitable for all ages.

Study: Inhibitory Effects of Ginger Oil on Spontaneous and PGF2alpha-Induced Contraction

Buddhakala N, Talubmook C, Sriyotha P, Wray S, Kupittayanant S.
Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

The effects of ginger essential oil on smooth muscle contractility have not been elucidated. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of ginger oil on rat myometrial contractility. We particularly examined the effects on phasic contractions arising either spontaneously or with PGF (2) (alpha) stimulation. Ginger oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its constituents analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Rats were humanely killed by asphyxiation with CO (2), and longitudinal uterine smooth muscles were isolated. Isometric force was measured and the effects of ginger oil studied. It was found that citral was the main constituent of ginger oil (24 %). Ginger oil inhibited spontaneous contractions with an IC (50) of 50 muL/100 mL (10 - 150 muL/100 mL). The PGF (2) (alpha)-induced contractions were also significantly reduced by ginger oil. Increases in external calcium concentration completely reversed the relaxant effects of ginger oil. This was the case for both spontaneous and PGF (2) (alpha)-induced contractions. The effects of ginger oil were indistinguishable from those of pure citral. In conclusion, ginger oil is a potent inhibitor of phasic activity in rat uterus, irrespective of how it was produced. Our data suggest that the effects are largely due to citral, and could be via inhibition of L-type Ca channels. AUC:area under the curve Ca:calcium PGF (2):prostaglandin F (2alpha)PKC:protein kinase C.

Study: The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system

Riyazi A, Hensel A, Bauer K, Geissler N, Schaaf S, Verspohl EJ.
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Muenster, Germany.

A contribution of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on inhabiting the 5-HT3 receptor complex had been shown. In the present study a possible interaction of some compounds of the volatile oil with the 5-HT3 receptor system expressed in N1E-115 cells and with the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum was investigated. The volatile oil was obtained by steam distillation and fractionated using a silica gel column resulting in five fractions. Compounds of the fractions were identified by GC-MS. The influence of the volatile oil, its fractions and pure components on serotonin-induced [14C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells was measured indicating the inhibitory interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor channel system. Most potent inhibitors of cation influx were the volatile oil, fraction 4, beta-pinene, terpinolene, alpha-copaene and alpha-phellandrene. The volatile oil and fractions 1 and 4 were not able to significantly influence either serotonin (10 microM)-induced maximum contraction of the rat ileum or the second phase of the biphasic contraction 2.5 min after serotonin addition. However, beta-pinene, terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene reduced both contractions. In conclusion, the volatile oil and distinct compounds such as terpinolene, beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene interact with 5-HT3 receptor channel system and possess an antispasmodic effect at the rat ileum.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Studies on Essential Oils as Sleep Aids

Lavender essential oil is a well known sleep aid -- a drop or two on the pillow or bedspread at night improves sleep for many people. Some even run a diffuser slowly releasing lavender over the course of the night. But lavender doesn't work for everyone -- particularly those who aren't especially fond of its aroma. These folks might want to try Sandalwood or Chamomile; and try using these oils topically in small amounts rather than only inhaling the aroma.

These two studies show first: that Lavender has a significant statistical effect in improving sleep patterns. The second shows that not everyone is the same, and how one responds to an aroma will likely determine if that aroma will positively effect them, or not at all. Also, gender seemed to be a factor in response to an aroma.

Study: An olfactory stimulus modifies nighttime sleep in young men and women.
Goel N, Kim H, Lao RP. Department of Psychology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459, USA.

Aromatherapy is an anecdotal method for modifying sleep and mood. However, whether olfactory exposure to essential oils affects night-time objective sleep remains untested. Previous studies also demonstrate superior olfactory abilities in women. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of an olfactory stimulus on subsequent sleep and assessed gender differences in such effects. Thirty-one young healthy sleepers (16 men and 15 women, aged 18 to 30 yr, mean+/-SD, 20.5+/-2.4 yr) completed 3 consecutive overnight sessions in a sleep laboratory: one adaptation, one stimulus, and one control night (the latter 2 nights in counterbalanced order). Subjects received an intermittent presentation (first 2 min of each 10 min interval) of an olfactory (lavender essential oil) or a control (distilled water) stimulus between 23:10 and 23:40 h. Standard polysomnographic sleep and self-rated sleepiness and mood data were collected. Lavender increased the percentage of deep or slow-wave sleep (SWS) in men and women. All subjects reported higher vigor the morning after lavender exposure, corroborating the restorative SWS increase. Lavender also increased stage 2 (light) sleep, and decreased rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep and the amount of time to reach wake after first falling asleep (wake after sleep onset latency) in women, with opposite effects in men. Thus, lavender serves as a mild sedative and has practical applications as a novel, nonphotic method for promoting deep sleep in young men and women and for producing gender-dependent sleep effects.


Study: Sleep changes vary by odor perception in young adults.Goel N, Lao RP.
Department of Psychology, 207 High Street, Judd Hall, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA.

Peppermint (peppermint essential oil), a stimulating odor, increases alertness while awake and therefore may inhibit sleep. This study examined peppermint's effects on polysomnographic (PSG) sleep, alertness, and mood when presented before bedtime. Twenty-one healthy sleepers (mean age +/- S.D., 20.1 +/- 2.0 years) completed three consecutive laboratory sessions (adaptation, control, and stimulus nights). Peppermint reduced fatigue and improved mood and was rated as more pleasant, intense, stimulating, and elating than water. These perceptual qualities associated with sleep measures: subjects rating peppermint as very intense had more total sleep than those rating it as moderately intense, and also showed more slow-wave sleep (SWS) in the peppermint than control session. Furthermore, subjects who found peppermint stimulating showed more NREM and less REM sleep while those rating it as sedating took longer to reach SWS. Peppermint did not affect PSG sleep, however, when these perceptual qualities were not considered. Peppermint also produced gender-differentiated responses: it increased NREM sleep in women, but not men, and alertness in men, but not women, compared with the control. Thus, psychological factors, including individual differences in odor perception play an important role in physiological sleep and self-rated mood and alertness changes.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

Essential Oils Studied To Prevent Aflatoxin Growth In Food

Aflatoxin is a fungus often found in our food supply, growing on items like peanuts and corn. It is highly destructive to the liver. The essential oils studied here include Thyme and Rosemary. Though these studies may not describe much in the way of practical application directly, they do support the use of essential oils to fight fungal infections. Some oils are useful topically, and other can be ingested in small amounts for candida infections; consult a qualified natural health practitioner for more support if essential oils might benefit you in this way...

Study: Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

Rasooli I, Fakoor MH, Yadegarinia D, Gachkar L, Allameh A, Rezaei MB. Department of Biology, Shahed University, Iran.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary essential oil) and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.

Study: Chemoprevention by thyme oils of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production.

Rasooli I, Owlia P. Department of Biology, Shahed University, Iran.

The essential oils from Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus X-porlock (varieties of thyme essential oil) obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. The major components of T. eriocalyx and T. X-porlock oils were thymol (63.8, 31.7%), beta-phellandrene (13.30, 38.7%), cis-sabinene hydroxide (8.1, 9.6%), 1,8-cineole (2, 1.7%), and beta-pinene (1.31, 2%), respectively. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. Static effects of the above oils against A. parasiticus were at 250 ppm and lethal effects of T. eriocalyx and T. X-porlock were 500 and 1000 ppm of the oils, respectively. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 250 ppm of both oils with that of T. eriocalyx being stronger inhibitor. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A. parasiticus exposed to MIC level (250 ppm) of the oils showed irreversible damage to cell wall, cell membrane, and cellular organelles. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods at low concentrations to protect them from fungal infections.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Thursday, May 08, 2008

Essential Oils Show Positive Effects In Oral Hygiene

Another study has confirmed the efficacy of using essential oils in preparations such as toothpaste and mouthwash for reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth. This is important, as it is bacteria that cause all of our dental troubles, from tooth decay, to plaque, to gum disease. You can experiment yourself by adding a drop of spearmint essential oil to your toothpaste before using; any other oil like Peppermint or Cinnamon would need SIGNIFICANT dilution (1 part to 100 for example) in your oral cleansing preparation before use.

The first study evaluates the efficacy of a toothpaste with Peppermint essential oil against a specific bacteria. The second evaluates plaque reduction compared to preparations using other active ingredients. Note that the first study mentions the potency of the lower concentrations of essential oils - as is usually the case in aromatherapy, smaller amounts of oil ususally have the greatest efficacy!

Study: Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque.

Shayegh S, Rasooli I, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SD.Department of prosthetics, College of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Antimicrobial activities and biofilm-formation preventive properties of Mentha piperita (peppermint essential oil) and Cuminum cyminum essential oils and chlorhexidine were assessed against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis led to the identification of 26 and 32 compounds in the essential oils of M. piperita and C. cyminum, respectively. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the oils and chlorhexidine and microbial decimal reduction time (D value) were determined. Antibacterial and in vivo biofilm preventive efficacies of all the concentrations of M. piperita oil were significantly (p<0.001)> chlorhexidine > C. cyminum order. In vivo experiments conducted on male and female volunteers who brushed with essential oil blended toothpastes indicated that lower concentrations of the oils, in particular the M. piperita oil, were significantly higher (p<0.001)>

Study: Comparative antiplaque effectiveness of an essential oil and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride mouthrinse.

Riep BG, Bernimoulin JP, Barnett ML.
Department of Periodontology, Humboldt University/Charité, Berlin, Germany.

The adjunctive use of antimicrobial mouthrinses to help control supragingival plaque and gingivitis has been shown to contribute significantly to patients' daily oral hygiene regimens. This controlled clinical study used an observer-blind, randomized, cross-over design in a 4-day plaque regrowth model to determine the relative efficacies of an essential oil-containing mouthrinse (Listerine Antiseptic) and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse (Meridol) in inhibiting the development of supragingival plaque. A 0.1% chlorhexidine mouthrinse (Chlorhexamed-Fluid) was used as a positive control, and a 5% hydroalcohol solution was used as a negative control. Dosing for each of the test mouthrinses was based on the manufacturers' label directions. Because the volume and rinse time for each of the test mouthrinses were different, each test mouthrinse had its own negative control group. On day 1 of each test period, subjects received an oral soft and hard tissue examination and a dental prophylaxis to remove all plaque, calculus, and extrinsic stain. Starting the same day, subjects refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene procedures for the next 4 days and rinsed 2x daily under supervision with their randomly-assigned mouthrinse. On day 5, each subject received a plaque assessment as well as an oral examination to assess side effects. Each test period was separated by a 2-week washout period. 23 volunteers with a median age of 26 years completed the study. Compared to the respective placebos, the median percent plaque reductions at 5 days were 23.0%, 12.2%, and 38.2% for the essential oil, amine/stannous fluoride, and chlorhexidine rinses, respectively. The plaque reductions seen in the essential oil and chlorhexidine rinse groups were statistically significant (p <> 0.05). Additionally, the essential oil rinse was significantly more effective (p <>








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Friday, May 02, 2008

Variouls Essential Oil Scented Candles Tested As Insect Repellents

We've all smelled Citronella candles at some time or another, using them as mosquito repellents in the heat of summer. A pair of studies performed at The Hebrew University, Hadassah-Medical School in Jerusalem compared the efficacy of various aromatherapy candles with different essential oil or oil components as their scent. Geraniol was the most potent of the mosquito repellents; this essential oil component is most abundant in Geranium essential oil. You can easily make your own insect repellent formula, and add it to an uncented lotion base, or just use a Hazelut carrier oil as we do. Recommended oils (keep total concentration below 3% for extended use) Geranium, Citronella, Cedar, wild Lavender. You'll smell great, but the bugs won't think so...

Study: Ability of essential oil candles to repel biting insects in high and low biting pressure environments.

Müller GC, Junnila A, Kravchenko VD, Revay EE, Butler J, Orlova OB, Weiss RW, Schlein Y.
Department of Parasitology, Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University, Hadassah-Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

The first goal of this study was to compare the degree of personal protection against biting insects provided by geraniol, linalool, and citronella candle (5%) vapors outdoors, where such products are commonly used. At a distance of 1.0 m, citronella candles reduced the number of female mosquitoes caught in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps by 35.4% and sand flies by 15.4%, linalool candles reduced female mosquitoes by 64.9% and sand flies by 48.5%, while geraniol candles reduced female mosquitoes by 81.5% and sand flies by 69.8%. By increasing the distance to 2 m and 3 m, the repellency dropped significantly. The second goal was to compare the degree of personal protection provided by the best performing candle, geraniol, under conditions of high and low biting pressure. The introduction of geraniol candles to protect volunteers in a high biting pressure environment reduced the mosquito pressure by an average of 56% and the sand fly pressure by 62% over a distance of 1.0 m. In the low biting pressure environment, geraniol reduced the mosquito pressure by an average of 62%. No sand flies were present at this site.

Study: Indoor protection against mosquito and sand fly bites: a comparison between citronella, linalool, and geraniol candles.

Müller GC, Junnila A, Kravchenko VD, Revay EE, Butlers J, Schlein Y.
Department of Parasitology, Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

The repellent effect of 3 essential oil-based candles was evaluated in a high biting pressure environment in Israel. In human landing assays, the repellency rate of 5% citronella candles against mosquitoes was 29.0%, of 5% linalool candles was 71.1%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 85.4%. The candles with geraniol were about twice as effective as those with linalool and were about 5 times as effective as citronella candles in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by mosquitoes. The repellency rate of 5% citronella candles towards sand flies was 24.7%, of 5% linalool candles was 55.2%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 79.7%. A geraniol candle was almost 5 times as effective as a citronella candle and about twice as effective as a linalool candle in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by sand flies.








*The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. The information presented here is for educational purposes of traditional uses and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.


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