This Week Free With Your Next Order: PuriFy, Our Much Loved ‘Better than Thieves’ Formula!

PuriFy is a blend of natural, scientifically-supported antibacterial and immune system stimulating, oils with a beautifully sweet and spicy aroma. 12ml, normally $16.75, is free with every order over $69. Just type ‘Purify’ in the comments box of your order, and we’ll add it here.

Plus, as always, receive free shipping with every first order, and all orders over $99. See our sales and specials page for all the details, and other sales currently going on at Ananda.

One customer has noted about the quality of this formula: “Purify is just plain better all around than that other company’s blend that begins with T. Purify smells really nice and has an effective combo of oils. It isn’t so “hot” as some antibacterial, antiviral blends are so I find it more usable. I can say that it helps Lyme Disease. Anything that keeps bacteria or viruses at bay is helpful.”

This classic, broad-spectrum anti-microbial and immune-supportive blend contains pure therapeutic grade essential oils of CloveLemonCinnamon Bark, Eucalyptus and Rosemary. All these oils have shown anti-microbial activity in scientific studies.1,2,3,4,5

In our formula, the Clove and Cinnamon Bark are CO2-distilled, a cold-extraction process with a larger-spectrum of active molecular constituents than the steam distilled varieties. We’ve had much wonderful customer feedback from those that have used that other blend, and they find they absolutely love PuriFy!

Further, Eucalyptus in the formula have been shown to support the activity of our white blood cells, increasing phagocytotic-activity (their action of consuming and removing foreign material or infectious bacteria).6

It is a lovely aromatic, which can be used in a diffuser to purify air in any room, or to inhale from to support your health. Dilute in any carrier for topical application (test for skin sensitivity – the cinnamon oil is a known skin irritant). The soles of the feet are the best place to apply this oil as the skin is less sensitive, and essential oil absorption at the many energy meridians is considered especially beneficial.

Use this as a natural cleaner, diluting 4 to 20 drops of oil per cup of water in a spray bottle and shake well before each use.

Simply type ‘Purify’ in the comments box of the checkout page, and we’ll include it with your order here! See our Sales and Specials page for many wonderful oils on sale as well.

Selected research on the anti-bacterial properties of these essential oils:

1. Clove Essential Oil

Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

Braz J Microbiol. 2012 Oct;43(4):1255-60. doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822012000400003. Epub 2012 Jun 1. Nuñez L1, Aquino MD.

Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use.

2. Lemon Essential Oil

Effect of citrus lemon oil on growth and adherence of Streptococcus mutans.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Jul;29(7):1161-7. doi: 10.1007/s11274-013-1275-7. Epub 2013 Feb 5..Liu Y1, Zhang X, Wang Y, Chen F, Yu Z, Wang L, Chen S, Guo M.World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Apr;30(4):1435.

In order to exploit novel anticaries agents, we investigated the effects of citrus lemon oil (CLO), a type of natural product, on growth and adherence of the primary oral cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The growth inhibitory effect was explored with a micro-dilution assay. Adherence was analyzed by colony counts on the respective surfaces and the adherence inhibition rate (AIR). Real time-PCR was used to investigate the effects of CLO on transcription of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) encoding genes, gtfB, C and D. Neson-Somogyi method was used to measure the effects of CLO on Gtf activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CLO against S. mutans was 4.5 mg/ml. The CLO effectively reduced the adherence of S. mutans on glass surface (the AIR were from 98.3 to 100 %, P > 0.05) and saliva-coated enamel surface (the AIR were from 54.8 to 79.2 %, P < 0.05). CLO effectively reduced the activity of Gtf and the transcription of gtfs in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CLO can effectively inhibit the growth and the adherence to glass and saliva-coated enamel surfaces of S. mutans. It can also inhibit the transcription of gtfs, as well as the Gtf enzyme activity.

3. Eucalyptus Essential Oil

Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus and of selected components against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens.


Pharm Biol. 2011 Sep;49(9):893-9. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2011.553625. Epub 2011 May 19. Mulyaningsih S1, Sporer F, Reichling J, Wink M

Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae) is the principal source of eucalyptus oil in the world and has been used as an antiseptic and for relieving symptoms of cough, cold, sore throat, and other infections. The oil, well known as ‘eucalyptus oil’ commercially, has been produced from the leaves. Biological properties of the essential oil of fruits from E. globulus have not been investigated much.

OBJECTIVE:The present study was performed to examine the antimicrobial activity of the fruit oil of E. globulus (EGF) and the leaf oils of E. globulus (EGL), E. radiata Sieber ex DC (ERL) and E. citriodora Hook (ECL) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Furthermore, this study was attempted to characterize the oils as well as to establish a relationship between the chemical composition and the corresponding antimicrobial properties.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by GLC-MS. The oils and isolated major components of the oils were tested against MDR bacteria using the broth microdilution method.

RESULTS:EGF exerted the most pronounced activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ~ 250 µg/ml). EGF mainly consisted of aromadendrene (31.17%), whereas ECL had citronellal (90.07%) and citronellol (4.32%) as the major compounds. 1,8-cineole was most abundant in EGL (86.51%) and ERL (82.66%).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:The activity of the oils can be ranked as EGF > ECL > ERL ~ EGL. However, all the oils and the components were hardly active against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Aromadendrene was found to be the most active, followed by citronellol, citronellal and 1,8-cineole.

4. Rosemary Essential Oil

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Rosemary.


Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;32(1):63-8. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2011.03.011. Epub 2011 Mar 30..Jiang Y1, Wu N, Fu YJ, Wang W, Luo M, Zhao CJ, Zu YG, Liu XL.

The composition of the essential oil of Rosemary was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 22 components, which constitute 97.41% of the oil, were identified. The major constituents were 1,8-Cineole (26.54%) and α-Pinene (20.14%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill dynamic processes against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), three Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were determined for the oil, 1,8-Cineole and α-Pinene.

The whole oil showed more pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activity than 1,8-Cineole and α-Pinene against all of the tested microbes.

Furthermore, the survival rates and morphological changes of S. aureus after treatment with different concentrations of the essential oil were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

5. Cinnamon Essential Oil

The antibacterial activity of cinnamon oil on the selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.


Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2014;66(2):131-41.[].[Article in Polish]Urbaniak A, Głowacka A, Kowalczyk E, Lysakowska M, Sienkiewicz M.

The aim of our study was to determine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon bark oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates belonging to Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter genera come from different clinical specimens.

METHODS: The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration–MIC for cinnamon bark oil. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc-diffusion method.

RESULTS: Our investigations showed that the tested cinnamon bark oil was inhibiting activity against all isolates. The MIC for Gram-positive bacteria were between 01.25 and 1.5 μl/ml and for Gram-negative between 1.0 and 1.75 μl/ml. The tested bacteria come from Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter genera were susceptible to essential oil obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness in low concentrations, despite the fact that the bacteria characterized the high resistance to recommended antibiotics. No correlation was found between the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial strains and their sensitivity to essential oil

CONCLUSIONS: The cinnamon bark oil due to the strong activity can be used as alternative antibacterial agents in cosmetics, toiletries and disinfectants applied in hospital environment.

6. Eucalyptus Essential Oil and Immune Stimulation

Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of Eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation devices.

Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):33-47. Sadlon AE1, Lamson DW.

Eucalyptus oil (EO) and its major component, 1,8-cineole, have antimicrobial effects against many bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), viruses, and fungi (including Candida). Surprisingly for an antimicrobial substance, there are also immune-stimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and spasmolytic effects. Of the white blood cells, monocytes and macrophages are most affected, especially with increased phagocytic activity. Application by either vapor inhalation or oral route provides benefit for both purulent and non-purulent respiratory problems, such as bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a long history of folk usage with a good safety record. More recently, the biochemical details behind these effects have been clarified. Although other plant oils may be more microbiologically active, the safety of moderate doses of EO and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial action make it an attractive alternative to pharmaceuticals. EO has also been shown to offset the myelotoxicity of one chemotherapy agent. Whether this is a general attribute that does not decrease the benefit of chemotherapy remains to be determined. This article also provides instruction on how to assemble inexpensive devices for vapor inhalation.



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A Wonderful, Thorough Review of The Ananda Apothecary!

Marvy MomsAfter frequent discussions with our owner, and sampling a range of our essential oils, this is an independent review of The Ananda Apothecary by Emily Carpenter at

And Here’s The Review: Emily and our owner since June 30th. We’ve talked about his company, the hot topic of ingestion of essential oils, and the healing power of frankincense essential oil. First let’s start off with the company profile and Q&A:

The Ananda Apothecary

Owned by: Eric Čech   Location: Boulder, CO

Number of Essential Oils: 120 (see All Essential Oils)

Other Products Sold: Essential Oil Blends, Diffusers, Nebulizers, Carrier Oils (25 varieties), Massage Oils, Mixing Bottles, Storage Bottles, Measuring Pipettes, “Tween” Emulsifier, Aromatherapy Books, Carrying Cases, and more (including free Super Immune with orders over $79).

Oils Received:

What’s on each bottle:

  • Oil name
  • Botanical name
  • Country of origin
  • Plant part
  • Volume (number of ml)
  • Boulder Colorado (Where Ananda is located)
  • Website address
  • “Pure essential oil”
  • “Therapeutic Grade 100% Pure Essential Oil”
  • “Keep Out of Reach of Children. If Pregnant or under a Doctor’s Care Consult Your Physician.”

What’s in the bottle:

The Rose Otto is gorgeous and such a wonderful addition to my collection. Helichrysum italicum is another one that is quite pricey, and worth EVERY penny. I’m planning to use this in some rosehip oil to treat scars. I’ve used helichrysum hydrosol in a blend to help with bruising, so I’m guessing the oil would be good for this too.

Is Ananda dedicated to supplying essential oils to the aromatherapy practitioner market and educated public?

“We ARE definitely dedicated to supplying essential oils to the practitioner market. We see SO many companies selling oils that are either just ‘cheap’ (too cheap to be of the best quality), or SO cheap, there is no way they can not be synthetic”

Is Ananda on the small size and not a large corporation?

“We are small in size, not a corporation, which allows close watch on the quality of our oils, and dedicated, knowledgeable customer service, from staff who knows about the products and how they are used.”

Is Ananda owned by an aromatherapy practitioner or essential oil specialist?

“Owned by ME, an aromatherapy practitioner myself. I write all the blog posts, and actually wrote every word on the website. If you scour it, you’ll see there’s a lot of knowledge put into each page. I research the science behind many oils, and post whenever I can (there is SO much data on Frankincense destroying cancer cells…in every cell line ever tested, leaving healthy cells unaffected…for example).”

Do you have relations with your distillers?

“Yes, relations with our distillers. This is extremely important to us, and finding the very best oil of every single variety we sell has been my objective for our 10 years in business.”

(Clay’s answer: “Yes, we definitely have relationships with our distillers. We want responsibly resourced or organic oils for sure. We work with the distillers. The world market for essential oils is a little bit funny because they make the whole supply in the beginning of the season. We have distillers that we’ve been working with for a long time, but if one of the distillers has a batch that isn’t up to par we will find a different source.”

Can Ananda readily supply a batch-specific GC/MS spec report on each essential oil it sells?

“GC/MS and MSDS’s are available for all our oils. CofA’s are often sent to customers upon request.”

Is Ananda readily able to provide material safety data sheets (MSDS) as needed?

“GC/MS and MSDS’s are available for all our oils CofA’s are often sent to customers upon request.”

Does Ananda and do you have a strong unquestioned noncontroversial reputation in the field?

“Our customers are repeat customers, and many order very large amounts from us for their practice, be it naturopathy, massage or other healing with essential oils.”

Have you been in the field for a number of years and are you well known to other aromatherapy practitioners and/or educators?

“And again, we’ve been in the field for 10 years, and again have many customers who use our oils in their practice, because they know they can consistently get the very best essential oil of every variety from us. For example, Helichrysum is an especially therapeutic oil – we get ours direct from the distiller in Corsica, the island which produces what is thought to be the world’s finest. It’s very impressive in its actions (put a little directly on a sore spot, tight muscle or tendon injury, and you can feel the pain relief almost immediately. I use more of this oil myself than any other, as a sports fanatic who is getting up there in age…relatively since I used to race professionally.”

What is different about Ananda?

We’re NOT an MLM, so we don’t charge mlm prices. The oils come from the distillers, are bottled by us, then sent to our customers (both doTerra and YL customers have noted our oils at least as good, if not better than what they’ve received from these companies). So essentially one is getting wholesale from us.

My Impressions of The Ananda Apothecary

As I mentioned before, Eric Čech and I have had a long email conversation about several topics. I asked him specifically about ingestion of essential oils since at the time he had recently published a blog post on this topic. I was concerned that while his article did recommend consulting a qualified aromatherapist/health professional before ingesting, he also indicated that certain oils were safe for ingestion on a regular basis. After much discussion he retracted his article since he realized it didn’t get across his real message of: “Don’t ingest without the guidance of a qualified health professional – should you think a protocol of ingestion of essential oils can help you, particularly with a dire health condition – we highly encourage you to seek out such a health professional.”

The fact that he willingly retracted his article and “plan(s) on a follow up article for clarification at some point” speaks volumes to me of Ananda’s commitment to education and safe use of essential oils. I think his point was that there are times when ingestion is warranted, however, don’t try to do it without guidance from someone who is qualified and has experience in ingestion.

To this point I agree. There are people that say “Never ingest!” and others that say “Ingest everything!” Neither are right. The problem is that there are not a lot of people qualified in safely ingesting essential oils. Thankfully, there are enough benefits to inhaling or applying diluted essential oils topically, that ingestion is rarely necessary.

In the aromatherapy world, there is a general dislike of the term “therapeutic grade” essential oils. It implies that there is a grading system with an oversight organization designating guidelines. The fact is: there is no such organization, and no such guidelines. “Therapeutic grade” is a made-up term to indicate that oils are intended for aromatherapy purposes. Ananda uses this term, as do many, many other essential oil companies.

To quote the Ananda website:

“Simply put, ‘therapeutic grade’ means that an essential oil has been carefully distilled to retain the maximum amount of constituents that have therapeutic effects. There is no ‘official’ meaning of ‘therapeutic grade’, as there is no agency that oversees the quality of essential oils in the United States. However, ‘therapeutic grade’ is recognized as a standard that should be upheld by the essential oil industry to ensure you get the maximum benefits possible from the oils you purchase. We believe this is of the utmost importance in selecting which oils to offer at Ananda.”

So, they are aware that there is no governing agency, and make no claim that there is. They are simply showing that they take great care in selecting their oils.

Overall, I get a good feeling from Ananda Apothecary. They have a nice selection of single oils, blends, and other aromatherapy products. Owner, Eric Čech, is open to feedback and committed to educating customers. Not to mention, he sent me such an amazing selection of oils! As with many of the companies I’ve interviewed, Ananda was glad to send me oils to be a part of my mission of helping people to discover choices when selecting where to buy their essential oils.

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Frankincense Oil & Breast Cancer Research and More: Amazing Discoveries

Frankincense Tears

Frankincense Tears, the Dried Sap of Boswellia Trees, is Distilled into Frankincense Essential Oil.

Frankincense has been the most widely studied essential oil for the potential treatment of many types of cancer in the laboratory. And all Frankincense oils noted in the research is on sale, 20% off!

In every study thus published, Frankincense oil has caused cancerous cells to undergo aptosis (natural cell death) and left healthy cells unaffected.*

To learn more about each of our Frankincense varieties, see our blog post Frankincense Sacra, Carteri or Seratta: The Science and the Scents.

Frankincense Tree

A Boswellia Sacra tree, source of Sacred Frankincense from Oman. The Boswellia trees are unharmed in the process of harvesting the dried sap, called Frankincense 'tears'.

Frankincense has been the subject of research in a number of cancer cell lines, including those of breast1,2,3 bladder4, brain3, and more.

In research, Frankincense essential oil has been evaluated in these studies. One important conclusion is that “Frankincense appears to distinguish between normal cells and suppress cancer cell viability”.

To learn more about each of our distillations, sources and aromas, see ‘Frankincense: The Science and the Scents‘ on our blog.

Below are just a few of the research papers regarding Frankincense and cancer. Many more can be found on

1. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014 Spring;13(2):719-24. 
Boswellia has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gum extract of Boswellia on the viability and P53 gene expression of cultured breast cancer cells. The gum extract was obtained in various concentrations using the maceration method. Normal (HEK-293) and cancer (MDA-MB-231) human cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of the extract. Then MTT assay was used for the study of cytotoxic effect of the extract and real time PCR method was also applied for the investigation of P53 gene expression in cancer cells. The IC50 of the extract against cancer cells was 80 µg/mL and had less cytotoxic effect in normal cells. The effect of the extract was dose dependent. Induction of P53 expression by extract was also significantly more in treated cancer cells than untreated cells. This inductive effect in cells was higher after 12 h treatment than it was after 6 h. The results of the current study show that gum extract of Boswellia has probably anti-cancer effects and could induce P53 gene transcription and toxicity in the cultured breast cancer cell line. The increase of P53 gene specific mRNA may be a mechanism of gum extract induced cytotoxicity. However, for a definitive conclusion, further studies on other cell lines as well as animal models and subsequent clinical studies are warranted.

2. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Dec 15;11:129. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-129. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells.

Suhail MM1, Wu W, Cao A, Mondalek FG, Fung KM, Shih PT, Fang YT, Woolley C, Young G, Lin HK.

BACKGROUND:Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp.) are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells.

METHODS: Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 °C for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A). Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation.

RESULTS: More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 °C hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil treatment. Boswellia sacra essential oil hydrodistilled at 100 °C was more potent than the essential oil prepared at 78 °C in inducing cancer cell death, preventing the cellular network formation (MDA-MB-231) cells on Matrigel, causing the breakdown of multicellular tumor spheroids (T47D cells), and regulating molecules involved in apoptosis, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression.

CONCLUSIONS: Similar to our previous observations in human bladder cancer cells, Boswellia sacra essential oil induces breast cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity. Suppression of cellular network formation and disruption of spheroid development of breast cancer cells by Boswellia sacra essential oil suggest that the essential oil may be effective for advanced breast cancer. Consistently, the essential oil represses signaling pathways and cell cycle regulators that have been proposed as therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Boswellia sacra essential oil as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer.

3. J Neurooncol. 2007 Mar;82(1):91-3. Epub 2006 Sep 26. A lipoxygenase inhibitor (Boswellia seratta) in breast cancer brain metastases. Flavin DF.

The complication of multiple brain metastases in breast cancer patients is a life threatening condition with limited success following standard therapies. The arachidonate lipoxygenase pathway appears to play a role in brain tumor growth as well as inhibition of apoptosis in in-vitro studies. The down regulation of these arachidonate lipoxygenase growth stimulating products therefore appeared to be a worthwhile consideration for testing in brain metastases not responding to standard therapy. Boswellia serrata, a lipoxygenase inhibitor was applied for this inhibition. Multiple brain metastases were successfully reversed using this method in a breast cancer patient who had not shown improvement after standard therapy. The results suggest a potential new area of therapy for breast cancer patients with brain metastases that may be useful as an adjuvant to our standard therapy.

4. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 18;9:6. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-6. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. Frank MB1, Yang Q, Osban J, Azzarello JT, Saban MR, Saban R, Ashley RA, Welter JC, Fung KM, Lin HK.

BACKGROUND: Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells.

METHODS: Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis.

RESULTS:Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis.

CONCLUSION:Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.


* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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