Black Pepper Essential Oil

Distillation Method:
Steam
Country of Origin:
Madagascar
Plant Part:
Unripe Fruit
Latin Name:
Piper nigrum
Cultivation:
Certified Organic

About the Oil: Black Pepper essential oil is warming, spicy, and can add a bit of fire to any blend. An exceptional oil for aromatherapy and natural perfumery alike.

Grouped product items
Product Name Qty
5mL
$12.27
Qty.
-
+
10mL
$18.41
Qty.
-
+
30mL
$42.80
Qty.
-
+
60mL
$80.89
Qty.
-
+
Sample
$2.06
Qty.
-
+

Drops per ml

Blending Tips

60

Chemical Families

Monoterpenes
66.89%
Sesquiterpenes
32.70%
Oxide
0.40%

Primary Constituents

limonene
21.86%
beta caryophyllene
21.08%
alpha pinene
15.63%
beta pinene
14.18%
3-careen
13.05%
Description

ABOUT THE PLANT

The Pepper plant is a perennial, woody vine with heart shaped leaves and small white flowers. Native to south west India, Pepper is cultivated primarily in tropical climates such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Madagascar.

ABOUT THE OIL

The essential oil is extracted from dried, fully grown yet unripe fruit of the pepper plant. Black pepper essential oil can be used in both aromatherapy formulas and in natural perfumery.

The essential oil benefits significantly from the cold distillation process, retaining more of its lovely spicy nature.

OF INTEREST

Black pepper has been used since antiquity in the culinary and healing arts. Indian monks had been prescribed seven to nine peppercorns a day in times of distant traveling; apparently a great energizer!

Therapeutic Properties

THERAPEUTICS DESCRIBED BY AROMATHERAPY SPECIALISTS

From Salvatore Battaglia’s The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy1:

  • Analgesic
  • Antiseptic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Carminative
  • Diaphoretic
  • Laxative
  • Stomachic
  • Tonic
  • Helps us “get a move on” when we feel “stuck”
  • Stimulating to the spleen
  • Warming & Stimulating

From Chrissie Wildwood’s The Encyclopedia of Aromatherapy2:

  • Improves poor circulation
  • Relieves muscular aches
  • Combats lethargy & mental fatigue
  • Warming and stimulating
  • “a reputed aphrodisiac”

PROPERTIES OF BLACK PEPPER REPORTED IN PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH

Black pepper essential oil contains a broad range of compounds that have been found to have therapeutic activities in scientific research. The most abundant of these compounds are limonene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene.

LIMONENE

  • Antifungal3
  • Antioxidant3
  • Anti-cancer4

BETA CARYOPHYLLENE

  • Analgesic5
  • Antidepressant6
  • Anxiolytic6
  • Gastroprotective7
  • Liver protective8
  • Anti-cancer9

ALPHA PINENE

  • Anxiolytic10

BETA PINENE

  • Antidepressant11
  • Sedative11

SUMMARY OF RESEARCH STUDIES

  • Limonene from orange essential oil showed strong antioxidant activity and significant antifungal activity against some common food molds in vitro.3
  • The combination of limonene and linalyl acetate from Bergamot has been shown to induce cancer cell death.4
  • β-Caryophyllene was found to have significant local anesthetic activity in studies on both rats and rabbits.5
  • β-Caryophyllene caused a significant reduction in depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors in rats. According to the researchers, "these preclinical results suggest that CB2 receptors may provide alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The possibility that [β-Caryophyllene] may ameliorate the symptoms of these mood disorders offers exciting prospects for future studies."6
  • β-Caryophyllene was shown to significantly reduce colitis (inflammation of the colon) in mice and researchers say the results that β-Caryophyllene “has potential as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease".7
  • β-Caryophyllene had a significant effect in protecting against liver toxicity in rats given experimental toxins. The study suggests that this liver-protecting ability is due to its radical-scavenging antioxidant activity.8
  • An in-vitro study showed that β-Caryophyllene has the ability to stop the spread of cancer cells and cause tumor cell death without harming normal cells.9
  • Inhalation of α-Pinene from fir oil was found to exhibit a significant anxiety-relieving effect in rats.10
  • Beta-pinene was found to have significant antidepressant-like effects in rodents. This same study also reported evidence of a sedative effect as well.11
  • Inhalation of black pepper oil was found to have strong appetite-stimulating effects in pediatric patients.12

 

REFERENCES

1 Battaglia, Salvatore. The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy. International Centre of Holystic Aromatherapy, 2003.

2 Wildwood, Christine. Encyclopedia of Aromatherapy. Healing Arts Press, 2000.

3 Singh, Priyanka, et al. “Chemical Profile, Antifungal, Antiaflatoxigenic and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Maxima Burm. and Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck Essential Oils and Their Cyclic Monoterpene, Dl-Limonene.” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 6, June 2010, pp. 1734–1740., doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.04.001.

4 Russo, Rossella, et al. “Implication of Limonene and Linalyl Acetate in Cytotoxicity Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in Human Neuroblastoma Cells.” Fitoterapia, vol. 89, 2013, pp. 48–57., doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2013.05.014.

5 Ghelardini, C., et al. “Local Anaesthetic Activity of β-Caryophyllene.” Il Farmaco, vol. 56, no. 5-7, 2001, pp. 387–389., doi:10.1016/s0014-827x(01)01092-8.

6 Bahi, Amine, et al. “β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor Agonist Produces Multiple Behavioral Changes Relevant to Anxiety and Depression in Mice.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 135, Aug. 2014, pp. 119–124., doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.06.003.

7 Bento, Allisson Freire, et al. “β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPARγ Pathway.” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 178, no. 3, 2011, pp. 1153–1166., doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2010.11.052.

8 Calleja, Miguel Angel, et al. “The Antioxidant Effect of β-Caryophyllene Protects Rat Liver from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Fibrosis by Inhibiting Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 109, no. 03, 14 Feb. 2013, pp. 394–401., doi:10.1017/s0007114512001298.

9 Amiel, Eitan, et al. “β-Caryophyllene, a Compound Isolated from the Biblical Balm of Gilead (Commiphora Gileadensis), Is a Selective Apoptosis Inducer for Tumor Cell Lines.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, 2012, pp. 1–8., doi:10.1155/2012/872394.

10 Satou, Tadaaki, et al. “Anxiolytic-like Effect of Essential Oil Extracted from Abies Sachalinensis.” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 26, no. 6, Nov. 2011, pp. 416–420., doi:10.1002/ffj.2075.

11 Guzmán-Gutiérrez, S.L., et al. “Antidepressant Activity of Litsea Glaucescens Essential Oil: Identification of β-Pinene and Linalool as Active Principles.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 143, no. 2, 2012, pp. 673–679., doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.026.

12 Munakata, Mitsutoshi, et al. “Olfactory Stimulation Using Black Pepper Oil Facilitates Oral Feeding in Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Enteral Nutrition.” The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 214, no. 4, 2008, pp. 327–332., doi:10.1620/tjem.214.327.

Application

INHALATION

  • direct inhalation, diffuser, oil vaporiser

TOPICAL

  • massage, compress, ointment
  • Black pepper is also good in warming liniment formulas and massage blends to increase blood flow.
  • It can help with tooth aches, in a similar manner to Clove oil.
  • May be applied to the bottoms of the feet, or elsewhere on the body when diluted in a carrier oil.
Aromatherapy Details

Our Black Pepper oil is a deep yellow color and has a soft floral top note followed by a delicate lingering spice with a hint of musky earthiness.

Last but not least, as a stimulating aphrodisiac Black Pepper can be used to add a warm spiciness to perfume blends. The fragrance is both comforting and stimulating.

It blends well with lavender, frankincense, cedarwood, and wherever a hint of spice is desired in natural perfumes.

Safety

Generally Black Pepper oil is non-toxic and and non-sensitizing, yet in high concentrations it can irritate skin. Always test a small amount first for sensitivity or allergic reaction.

If pregnant or breastfeeding, consult a physician prior to use.