Trans Anethole: Trans anethole is commonly used as a flavoring substance due to its fennel like aroma and flavor. However therapeutically, trans anethole is an antimicrobial that works against bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Interestingly, it also possesses strong estrogenic activity and may promote lactation due to its similar structure to catecholamines. Anetholes structural similarites to catecholamines allow for it to bind at certain sites that promote estrogen pathways.

Benzyl Acetate: Benzyl acetate is an ester that can be found naturally occurring in many flowers. It has a pleasant sweet aroma that is reminiscent to jasmine and thus commonly used in flavoring and perfumes. Most notably, it is highly attractive to orchid bees that utilize benzyl acetate to synthesize pheromones. Aside from attracting bees, benyzl acetate from jasmine exhibits fungicidal, bactericidal, germicidal, and antiviral properties. Additionally, studies suggest benzyl acetate from jasmine oil has a calm and soothing effect that can be used as a sleep aid by decreasing ones heart rate and in turn promoting calmness. It is also said to be an aphrodisiac and can be effective in treating premature ejaculation, impotency, frigidity, and other sexual related disorders.

Benzyl Benzoate: Currently, benzyl benzoate is used as an inexpensive topical medication to treat scabies and lice, and can be used as an insect repellent. Benzyl benzoate does possess vasodilation and spasmolytic effects, so it has been used in many asthma and whooping cough medications. When using benzyl benzoate it should be noted that it can be a skin irritant and should be used with caution prior to topical application, especially with children.

Borneol Acetate: Borneol acetate (bornyl acetate) is an ester that carries a camphoraceous, piney, herbal like aroma. Due to the aromatic characteristics of borneol acetate, it is used in many perfumes, cleaning products, and detergents. Aside from its aromatic profile, borneol acetate has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory like effects, which in turn can contribute to pain reduction caused by inflamation.

τ Cadinol: τ cadinol can be easily noted by an earthy balsalmic odor. From research, it has been suggested that τ cadinol has a smooth muscle relaxing effect, which can be useful for gastrointestinal discomfort.

Camphene: This monoterpene can be easily identified by its strong pungent aroma that is rather similar to camphor. One can obviously see why camphor has been used as an additive for foods, fragrances, and cosmetics. However camphor has several therapeutic properties as well.  For example, research has shown camphene to be an excellent antifungal for skin infections such as dysentery or athletes food. Camphene has also been used to treat viral and bacterial infections that affect the respiratory system and has been effectively used to treat congestion and bronchitis.  If you are suffering from stress, camphene is an excellent antioxidant that can repair the damage caused by stress by reducing blood pressure and inflammation.

Camphor: Camphor is well known for its very strong, distinct aroma and has been widely used for medicinal purposes and religious ceremonies. Camphor’s most common medicinal uses include topical use to relieve pain or itching, treat fungal infections in toe nails, warts, cold sores, hemorrhoids, and osteoarthritis. When applied topically, camphor appears to stimulate nerve endings and increase blood flow to reduce pain and swelling caused by irritation.

δ-3-Carene: This monoterpene has a citrusy flavor, but is characterized by a sweet, piney wood like aroma. The therapeutic properties of δ-3-carene include antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and sedative. Its sedative properties are most useful in treating insomnia, as it helps slow down brain function, but can also be used as a central nervous system depressant.

Carvone: Carvone is particularly interesting because it comes in two mirror images that have two very distinct odors. R-(-) carvone provides the characteristic odor of spearmint, whereas S-(+)-carvone is responsible for the odor of caraway seeds. The several applications of carvone include fragrance, flavor, a potato sprouting inhibitor, and antimicrobial agent present in cosmetics. There have been various studies in recent past that indicate carvone as potentially toxic at high amounts, and should be used with care when blending or using with children.

Caryophyllene: This compound has been a bit of a hot bed for interest of late, due to it being a small to major component in some cannabinoids. This component binds to a receptor that has almost all of the therapeutic effects that are desired of cannabinoids. Because of this binding and its prevalence in many essential oils, this sesquiterpene has become a hot topic in understanding the synergistic effects of essential oils and blending of essential oils.

Chamazulene: Chamazulene is the culprit for the beautifully rich violet-blue color that is characteristic of essential oils like German Chamomile and Blue Yarrow. Aside from its aesthetic color, chamazulene has exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in vivo.

Chavicol: Chavicol is commonly used as a mild stimulant and is used in perfumes and food flavors.

Cinnamaldehyde: As the name suggests, cinnamaldehyde is responsible for the flavor and odor of cinnamon. As one would guess, it is frequently used in food and fragrance industries for its sweet spicy flavor and aroma. Cinnamaldehyde can be used as an effective fungicide and insecticide in agriculture due to its low levels of toxicity. It is an effective combatant of tooth decay and bad breath, can be used as an effective antimicrobial agent to help reduce infections, and has been used to treat diabetes in China and India. Research does suggest that cinnamaldehyde can considerably reduce plasma glucose levels and increase plasma insulin levels in a dose dependent manner, and could be an effective treatment for those afflicted with Diabetes. Despite its low toxicity in agriculture, cinnamaldehyde has been reported to be a skin irritant and should be used with care.

Cinnamyl acetate: Cinnamyl acetate is a byproduct of condensed cinnamyl alcohol and acetic acid. It is commonly used a flavor and fragrance agent that carries a sweet, spicy, floral, cinnamon like flavor and a floral, peppery, balsamic cinnamon like aroma. Aside from uses in food and cosmetics, cinnamyl acetate has been used successfully to repel and prevent harmful infestation of insects.

α Citral- α citral, also known as geraniol, has a rich lemony aroma and is present in many plants that posses a lemony fragrance. α  citral carries all of the qualities of citrals and is commonly used in perfumes, as an insect repellent, and exhibits sedative and antimicrobial properties. It should be noted that α citral is a very strong compound and is very effective in treating urinary tract infections and kidney stones, but can be difficult on the kidney if not used with caution.

β Citral: β citral is also commonly known as neral. β citral, has a very sweet odor that is characteristic of citrals but is less concentrated. β citral has been studied for the treatment of nervous disorders, menstrual problems, stomach problems, arthritis, fever, and cancer. It has been noted that when used topically, β citral can increase blood flow to treat join pains, tendinitis, sprains, athletes foot, and cuts. Additionally, β citral is an effective antimicrobial and works on both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

Citronellal: This aldehyde is mainly known as a mosquito repellant, but due to its structure has been identified as another natural compound that could have miraculous effects on important human pathways. This compound could not only disrupt the chemical equilibrium of certain pathways to push them to a more favorable genetic expression, but it has been shown to change the cellular membrane morphology that could be used for future pathway targeting. [3] Exciting new research is pouring in for this specific aldehyde because of its multipurpose use and it could become a game changer in a number of medical fields.

Citronellol: Citronellol is best characterized by its bitter taste, and sweet, floral, rosy-like aroma. Its lovely aroma makes it an excellent fragrance enhancer and is used in fragrances and cosmetics. The therapeutic effects of citronellol include anti-microbial, antifungal, antispasmodic, and anticonvulsant properties. Citronellol is an excellent mosquito repellent at short distances and would work synergistically with other insect repellent compounds.

Citronellyl Formate: Citronellyl formate is an ester of formic acid. It possesses a floral, sweet, green, citrus like aroma and fruity flavor. Therapeutically, it can be used as an antifungal and may exhibit marginal antitumor activity.

α Copaene: This sesquiterpene is characterized by a woody, spicy, honey-like aroma and is present in a variety of essential oils. Like most essential oil constituents, α copaene exhibits antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. One study in particular noted that α copaene may possess anti-proliferative and anti-genotoxic effects in rat neuroblastoma cells and potentially humans.

Coumarin: This sweet fragrant compound can best be described as freshly mowed hay. It is fairly bitter in taste and has been used in the past as an effective appetite suppressant and to enhance the aroma of pipe tobaccos. Unfortunately, research has shown coumarin to be potentially hepatotoxic in some animal models and is banned as a food flavoring additive. Coumarin has been recognized to be an excellent edema modifier and is the precursor to many anticoagulants such as Warfarin or Coumadin. Despite being a precursor to anticoagulants, coumarin does not pose any interference with clotting or vitamin K pathways.

P-Cymol: P-cymol, also known as para-cymene, is a monoterpene that has a pleasant fresh citrusy aroma. P-cymol has been studied as an effective antibacterial when used with carvacol against E. coli O157:H7. Additionally, p-cymol has been determined to possess anti-inflammatory activity and anti-nociceptive activity in mice.

Davanone: Davanone is a primary constituent of Davana essential oil and is typically used in food flavoring.

Elemol: This sesquiterpenol has been suggested to act as an excellent tick repellant, similarly to the commonly used product known as Deet. It can also be used as an odor agent due to its soft and creamy woody aroma, with a hint of citrus.

Eucalyptol: Eucalyptol or 1-8 cineole as it is sometimes named, has been utilized in various forms as a therapeutic for centuries now. It is traditionally defined as an oxide, and has an oxygen atom atop its bridged structure that is the key feature that leads to its oxidative behaviors. This compound is described as an anti-inflammatory and anti-pain, it is routinely used as a cough suppression and is often found in mouthwashes for its antiseptic behavior. The unique structure inherently showcases its properties as a therapeutic because the bridged oxygen atom is a prime location for reactivity. It has been offered as a possible solution to destabilize a biological pathway that is key to Alzheimer’s disease. Its anti-inflammatory properties could prove key in the future for other processes as well. [1]

Eugenol: Eugenol is most abundant in essential oils such as Clove, Nutmeg, and Cinnamon. It is predominantly responsible for the strong spicy aroma that is distinctive to clove. Eugenol has been used as a food preservative due to its antimicrobial properties, exhibits anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic activity. Most notably, eugenol is an excellent oral antiseptic and anti-inflammatory aid that has been utilized in dentistry to relieve tooth and gum pain during extractions, fillings, and root canal treatment.

Farnesol: Farnesol is commonly used in perfumery to emphasize sweet floral odors. It is a natural pesticide, most notably against mites. Recent research indicates that farnesol may function as a chemo-preventative and anti-tumor agent. It is also commonly used as a deodorant because of its antibacterial activity.

L-Fenchone: Fenchone is structurally similar to camphor and possesses a similar odor. It is a primary constituent of absinthe and fennel and therefore primarily used as a flavoring or perfume agent.

Geranial: Geranial, also known as α citral, has a rich lemony aroma. Most plants that exhibit a lemon-like aroma contain geranial.  Geranial carries all of the qualities of citrals and is commonly used in perfumes, is an effective insect repellent, and exhibits sedative and antimicrobial properties. Geranial is a very strong compound and can be an effective in treatment for urinary tract infections and kidney stones. Please note geranial is a very strong compound and can be difficult on the kidney if not used with caution.

Geraniol: Geraniol is a monoterpenol that is present in many essential oils and is known for its pleasant rose-like aroma. Due to its aromatic properties, geraniol makes for an excellent additive to perfumes and cosmetics.  Therapeutically, geraniol is an analgesic and drug enhancer. Like most constituents, it is antibacterial, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory. Research has shown that geraniol may be an effective mosquito repellent, but does attract honey bees. Geraniol is considered a severe eye irritant and can be moderately irritating to the skin.

Geranyl Acetate: Geranyl acetate is an ester that is known for its fruity rose like aroma. It is primarily used in perfumes and cosmetics because of this characteristic. Additionally, geranyl acetate exhibits an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

Germacrene D: Germacrene D is a sesquiterpene that is one of five isomers: Germacrene A, B, C, D and E. Germacrene D is particularly special as it is considered the most important of its isomers.  Therapeutically, Germacrene D possesses an antibacterial component and works synergistically with β caryophyllene and β ocimene. In recent research, Germacrene D illustrated a cytotoxic component and is highly anti-proliferative against human melanoma and leukemia cancer cells in vitro.

α Humulene: α humulene, also known as α caryophyllene, is an isomer to β caryophyllene with distinct properties. α humulene is recognized as a dietary cannabinoid, and like cannabinoids, is has powerful anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Much like many constituents, it is antibacterial as well. Interestingly, α humulene can be used as an appetite suppressant and may be used to promote weight loss. In more recent research, α humulene has illustrated potential anti-proliferative properties and anti-cancer effects.

Isobornyl Acetate: Isobornyl acetate is an ester with a sweet, balsalmic, camphoreous, herbal, wood like aroma. Is is most commonly used for fragrance in soaps and cleaning products.

Isomenthone: Isomenthone has a cool minty, mentholic aroma that is very similar to menthone. Like menthone, isomenthone exhibits antioxidant activity. Isomenthone has been studied for its antiviral effect against herpes simplex-1 and has been shown to provide protection to dermal fibroblasts by suppressing tumer necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mediated reduction.

Isopulegol: Isopulegol has a distinct mint like aroma and is commonly used as a flavoring agent or for the cooling effect it has, similar to menthol.

Limonene: Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene that comes from the word “lemon,” as it is highly abundant in the rinds of lemons and other citrus fruits. It is commonly used in cleaning products due to its oil dissolving ability and pleasant turpentine-like aroma. Limonene has been used in alternative medicine to alleviate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and heartburn.

Linalool: This important compound is found routinely in essential oils at various percentages. It is most notably thought of as a soothing compound and great for promoting sleep and other calming activities. In more recent news it has been linked to a 55% reduction in an important colon cancer process via hydroxyl radical generation. [2] More exciting anti-cancer research is continuing and hopefully this compound that is found in many floral oils can prove to be a natural monoterpenol that has amazing properties.

Linalyl Acetate: Linalyl acetate, also commonly known as bergamol, is most known for its pleasant fruity odor that is predominantly found in bergamot and lavender essential oils. Linalyl acetate has been studied for it anti-inflammatory activity, and has been helpful in treating skin inflammation or rashes  due to its ability to decrease skin redness and calm irritation. Linalyl acetates abilities to decrease inflammation do extend to other body systems outside of the skin, and can also be used to reduce menstrual pain and decrease blood pressure.  There have been a few studies that suggest linalyl acetate can be a mild irritant to the skin, and should be tested prior to direct use.

Menthofuran: Menthofuran is highly toxic and is a well-known hepatotoxin if ingested that gives pennyroyal its infamous fatal effects. Menthofuran is typically present in flowers at low amounts and has been used in the past to initiate menstruation and abortion.

Menthol: Many can recognize menthol due to its minty flavor, fragrance, and cooling effect. As a result of these portieres, menthol is a common additive in cigarettes. Menthol has been widely used to relieve mild sore throats or mouth irritations. Additionally, it is commonly used topically to relieve minor aches and pains. Menthol is known to be antimicrobial and present in food and oral hygiene products. It can act as an antispasmodic and be used to relax the upper gastrointestinal muscles. Furthermore, menthol exhibits antioxidant activity, analgesic effects, and anticancer effects.

Menthone: Menthone is both a monoterpene and ketone that is structurally related to menthol. It is used as an aromatic or flavoring agent due it its mint like aroma.

Menthyl Acetate: Menthyl acetate is a monoterpene ester that contributes to the odor and taste of peppermint.

Methyl Anthranilate: Methyl anthranilate is present in various essential oils and is predominantly used in perfumes. It is also used as flavoring in candy, soft drinks, chewing gum, drugs, and nicotine products due to its grape like taste.

Methyl Salicylate: Methyl salicylate is primarily present in wintergreen and birch essential oils. For this reason Methyl salicylate is also known as wintergreen oil, betula oil, and sweet birch oil. It has a sweet minty aroma characteristic of wintergreen and a similar taste. Therapeutically, methyl salicylate is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment aid for joint and muscle pain and has a pleasant cooling and warming sensation when used topically on the skin. It has also been used as a rubefacient as it is able to dilate blood capillaries and increase blood circulation naturally an aid in the treatment of chronic join and muscle pain. Methyl salicylate is used in oral care products as it is an excellent antiseptic for bad bread, gingivitis, and oral plaque.

β Myrcene: β myrcene is one of the smallest monoterpenes. It is mostly used in perfumes, due to its pleasant, earthy, fruity, clove like odor, but is also considered an important intermediate in the perfume industry. Myrcene has proved its importance in other areas as it is a primary player in the formation of other terpenes and synergizes the antibiotic potential of other terpenes. Myrcene has been studied more thoroughly in resent studies, as it has suggested to change the permeability of cell membranes and allow the absorption of more cannabinoids in the brain. Myrcene has also exhibited the ability to relieve pain, slow bacterial growth, help mitigate the effects of diabetes, reduce inflammation systematically, aid with sleep, inhibit cell mutation, minimizing the symptoms of psychosis, and suppressing muscle spasms.

Nepetalactone: Nepetalactone is isolated from catnip that is most commonly known as a cat attractant, or “kitty crack”. Unfortunately, it does not have the same effect to humans. Despite its most notably quality, it does have insect repellent properties towards cockroaches and mosquitos.

Neral: Neral is an isomer of citral, or lemonal, and is also known as β citral. Neral has a very sweet odor that is characteristic of citrals but is less concentrated. Neral has been studied in the treatment of nervous disorders, menstrual problems, stomach problems, arthritis, fever, and cancer. It has been noted that when used topically, neral can increase blood flow to treat join pains, tendinitis, sprains, athletes foot, and cuts. Additionally, neral is an effective antimicrobial and works on both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

Nerol: Nerol is an isomer to geraniol, and thus carries a similar sweet rose like odor, however nerol is considered to be “fresher” in comparison. Nerol can be synthesized from β pinene and converts to neryl acetate. Aside from the perfume industry, nerol can be used as a food flavoring agent, and has been found to be a useful insect repellent or deterrent.

Neryl Acetate: Neryl acetate is well known as the primary constituent of interest in Helichrysum essential oil. It is considered the main skin-benefiting compound in helichrysum and is likely responsible for the skin cell regeneration and anti-aging properties helichrysum is able to boast.

Patchoulol: Patchoulol is also known as patchouli alcohol and is a sesquiterpenol found in Patchouli. Patchoulol is the prime contributor to the characteristic earthy aroma of patchouli. Similar to most constutients, patchoulol exhibits an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect. Additionally, patchoulol is considered an indication of the purity and quality of patchouli essential oil, with the higher patchoulol content being a better quality oil.

α Phellandrene: α phellandrene and its isomer, β phellandrene, are cyclic monoterpenes. α phellandrene is used in fragrances due to its pleasant aroma.

β Phellandrene: β phellandrene is the cyclic monoterpene isomer of α phellandrene. β phellandrene has a peppery-minty and slightly citrusy aroma. Additionally, it has exhibited antifungal and antibacterial properties.

Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol: Phenyl ethyl alcohol is an organic compound that commonly occurs in nature. It is present in several essential oils and has a floral odor.

α Pinene: This monoterpene is an isomer to β pinene, and much like β pinene, is commonly found in most forest tree essential oils. α pinene has been studied for its anti-inflammatory activity and research suggests bronchodilator effects. Additionally, α pinene can be used as a broad spectrum antibiotic.

β Pinene: This monoterpene is a common naturally occurring organic compound present in most essential oils, most notably in forest tree essential oils. It is usually associated with its isomer, α pinene and carries a dry, woody, piney odor. From scientific research, it has been suggested that β pinene possess anti-depressant activity when used with linalool. In addition to potential anti-depressant behavior, β pinene has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties against gram positive bacteria and has been shown to have cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells.

Piperitone: Piperitone is a ketone that is characterized by its peppermint-like aroma and likely possesses antibacterial properties.

Sabinene: Sabinene is a monoterpene that is easily characterized by its woody and spicy odor. It is one of the main constituents of black pepper and is the culprit behind the “hot and spicy” characteristic of black pepper essential oil. Additionally, sabinene is the predominant constituent and source of flavor for carrots. Sabinene has a strong anti-inflammatory component that works systemically by inhibiting the production of inflammatory molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factor α.

α Santalol: α santalol is a sesquiterpenol that is commonly found in sandalwood essential oil at a higher abundancy than β santalol. Like patchoulol, santalol is responsible for the characteristic odor of sandalwood and is a biomarker for quality and purity, with higher percentages of α santalol indicating a superior oil quality. Additionally, santalol has been researched for its chemopreventative properties and anti-cancer properties.

β Santalol: β santalol is a sequiterpenol that is abundant in sandalwood essential oil, but at lower levels than α santalol. β santalol has been used as a sleep aid due to its ability to impact the central nervous system and promote more restful sleep.

γ Terpinene: γ terpinene is a lemony smelling compound that is predominantly found in citrus essential oils. Due to its pleasant aroma, it is commonly used in fragrances and cosmetics. However γ terpinene is more than a pleasant odor, it is a powerful antioxidant and antibacterial. In more recent research, it has been studied for its anti-inflammatory effects in chronic gingivitis, with results indicating effective inflammation reduction of the gums.

4-Terpineol: This monoterpenol has been studied for its antibacterial and antifungal properties. 4-terpineol is an active ingredient in Tea Tree and Nutmeg essential oils. Studies suggest 4-terpienol may have an anti-inflammatory effect.

α Terpineol: α terpineol is the major monoterpenol of its isomers. It carries a pleasant aroma similar to lilac, making it a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and foods. Aside from its pleasant odor, α terpineol has been studied for its effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory agent, anti-cancer agent, and antibacterial. Interestingly, α terpineol has been suggested to control C. albicans vaginal infections in vitro and in vivo, suppresses inflammatory markers leading to decreased inflammation, and has been suggested to impair the grown of melanoma cells that contain P-glycoprotien in their plasma membranes.

Terpineol Acetate: As is the case with most acetates, terpineol acetate (also called terpinyl acetate) is mostly thought of as a fragrance or as an aroma profile. Although little research has been done using this specific compound, it is thought that terpineol acetate can be used as a compound that can help some absorption mechanisms. This specific aroma is another floral fragrance that is a calming component to many other essential oils.

Thymol: Thymol is a phenolic monoterpene that is associated with a pleasant aromatic aroma and as the source of flavor from Thyme. Thymol is a strong antiseptic that has been used to treat skin infections such as ringworm and hookworm. It has also been used as an antiseptic in mouthwash to reduce dental plaque and gingivitis and can be present in some toothpastes. Additionally, thymol makes for an excellent disinfectant and works as a pesticide.

Vanillin: Vanillin is a phenolic aldehyde that is commonly found in vanilla and cacao essential oils. Vanillin has a lovely sweet, musky aroma and is used in food flavorings and perfumes.

α Zingiberene: α zingiberene is predominantly found in ginger rhizomes and is responsible for the distinct flavor in ginger. Zingiberene has been researched for its ability to fight viral infections, protect against stomach ulcers, and ease gastrointestinal discomfort due to gas.

 

 

References

[1] Islam, Fakhrul. "1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol) Mitigates Inflammation in Amyloid Beta Toxicated PC12   Cells: Relevance to Alzheimer’s Disease." Neurochemical Research, vol. 39, no. 2, Feb. 2014, pp. 344-52.

[2] Iwasaki, Kenichi. “Anticancer Effect of Linalool via Cancer-Specific Hydroxyl Radical Generation in Human Colon Cancer.” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, Nov. 2016.

[3] “Citronellal-induced disruption of membrane homeostasis in Candida albicans and attenuation of its virulence attributes.” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 49, Aug. 2016, pp 465-472.